INEEL Annual Site Environmental Report -
Chapter 6 - Environmental Monitoring Programs - Agricultural Products, Wildlife, Soil, and Direct Radiation
Some anthropogenic (human-made) radionuclides were detected in agricultural product, wildlife, and soil samples. For the most part, the results could not be directly linked to operations at the INEEL. With the exception of americium-241 concentrations in soils collected at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF), concentrations of radionuclides detected in soil samples were consistent with fallout levels from atmospheric weapons testing. The maximum levels for these radionuclides were all well below regulatory health-based limits for protection of human health and the environment.
Americium-241 was detected above background levels in soil samples collected around WERF. However, the concentrations were consistent with those measured historically and are attributable to past WERF operations and fallout.
Direct radiation measurements made at offsite, boundary, and onsite (except Radioactive Waste Management Complex [RWMC]) locations were consistent with background levels. The measured annual dose equivalent from external exposure was 123 mrem. Direct radiation measurements made at the (RWMC) were greater than background levels but consistent with those made historically at that location.
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6.1 Organization of Monitoring ProgramsThis chapter provides a summary of the various environmental monitoring activities that relate to agricultural products, wildlife, soil, and direct radiation currently being conducted on and around the INEEL (Table 6-1). These media are potential pathways for transport of INEEL contaminants to nearby populations.
The Management and Operating (M&O) contractor monitored soil, vegetation, and direct radiation on the INEEL to comply with applicable U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) orders and other requirements. The M&O contractor collected approximately 500 soil, vegetation, and direct radiation samples for analysis in 2002.
Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) and the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) also conduct monitoring of soil, vegetation, and direct radiation. These programs are to show compliance with DOE orders but are limited in scope to their specific facilities.
The Environmental Surveillance, Education and Research (ESER) contractor conducted offsite environmental surveillance and collected samples from an area of approximately 23,308 km2 (9000 mi2) of southeastern Idaho at locations on, around, and distant to the INEEL. The ESER contractor collected approximately 450 agricultural products, wildlife, soil, and direct radiation samples for analysis in 2002.
Section 6.2 presents the agricultural products and wildlife surveillance results sampled under the ESER Program. Section 6.3 presents the results of soil sampling by both the ESER contractor and the M&O contractor. The direct radiation surveillance results are presented in Section 6.4. Results of the waste management surveillance activities are discussed in Section 6.5. Section 6.6 summarizes the findings presented in this chapter.
The analytical results reported in the following surveillance sections are those that are greater than two times the analytical uncertainty (see Appendix B for information on statistical methods). Analytical uncertainties reported in text and tables are plus or minus two standard deviations (± 2s) uncertainty for the radiological analysis.
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MilkDuring 2002, 184 milk samples were collected under the ESER Program. All of the samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides including iodine-131 (131I). During the first and third quarters, selected samples were analyzed for tritium. During the second and fourth quarters, selected samples were analyzed for strontium-90 (90Sr).
Iodine-131 (131I) was detected in one milk sample from Roberts at a level of 5.26 ± 3.02 pCi/L. This value is well below the DOE derived concentration guide (DCG) for 131I in water of 3000 pCi/L. Cesium-137 (137Cs) was also detected in one milk sample from Idaho Falls at a level of 1.57 ± 1.49 pCi/L. This value is below the DCG for ingested 137Cs in water of 3000 pCi/L. Tritium was not detected in any milk sample in 2002.
Strontium-90 (90Sr) was detected in 11 out of 13 samples ranging from 0.49 ± 0.38 pCi/L at Rupert to 5.89 ± 4.60 pCi/L in a sample from Blackfoot. All levels of 90Sr in milk were consistent with those data previously reported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as resulting from worldwide fallout deposited on soil, then taken up by ingestion of grass by cows (EPA 1995). The maximum value is lower than the DOE DCG for 90Sr in water of 1,000 pCi/L.
Sixteen lettuce samples, including one duplicate, were collected from regional private gardens. Strontium-90 above the ± 2s uncertainty was detected in seven of the lettuce samples ranging from 0.065 ± 0.056 pCi/g at Howe to 0.36 ± 0.24 pCi/g in the duplicate from Arco (Table 6-2). Strontium-90 is present in lettuce through plant uptake of 90Sr in soil. Strontium-90 is present in soil as a residual of fallout from aboveground nuclear weapons testing, which took place between 1945 and 1980. The quantities detected in 2002 are similar to those identified in past years. Therefore, these detections were most likely from weapons testing fallout. No other radionuclides were detected in lettuce in 2002.
One of the 32 wheat samples (including one duplicate) collected during 2002 contained a measurable concentration of 90Sr. This sample, from Monteview, measured 0.22 ± 0.20 pCi/g. One wheat sample from Aberdeen contained a measurable concentration of 137Cs at a level of (4.0 ± 2.7) x 10-3 pCi/g. The concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs were similar to those detected in recent years (Table 6-3), and are attributed to historic aboveground nuclear weapons testing.
PotatoesFourteen potato samples, including one duplicate, were collected during 2002: one sample each from five distant locations, four boundary locations, and four and a duplicate from out-of-state locations (Figure 6-1). Idaho samples were collected from Blackfoot, Howe, Idaho Falls, Monteview, Moore, Mud Lake, Rupert, and Taber. Out-of-state samples were received from Oregon, Colorado, New Jersey, and Wyoming. Cesium-137 was detected in one of the samples from the Mud Lake boundary location, at a level of (3.4 ± 3.3) × 10-3 pCi/g. Cesium-137 is present in soil as a result of fallout from aboveground nuclear weapons testing between 1945 and 1980, and this detection was most likely from that fallout. No other radionuclides were detected in potatoes.
Figure 6-1. Location of potato samples taken during 2002.
Certain areas of the INEEL are open to grazing under lease agreements managed by the Bureau of Land Management. Every year, during the second quarter, ESER personnel collect samples from sheep grazed in these areas, either just before or shortly after they leave the INEEL. For the calendar year 2002, six sheep were sampled. Four were from INEEL land, and two were from Dubois to serve as control samples. Cesium-137 was detected in the muscle tissue of two onsite samples (ranging from [6.9 ± 2.9] x 10-3 to [7.3 ± 2.1] x 10-3 pCi/g) and in one liver tissue sample from an onsite animal ([5.0 ± 2.7] x 10-3 pCi/g). Although 137Cs was not measured above the 2s uncertainty in the control sheep in 2002, all 137Cs concentrations were similar to those found in both onsite and offsite sheep samples. Figure 6-2 shows that 137Cs concentrations in both sheep liver and muscle have been essentially the same (error bars overlap) since 1996. Iodine-131 did not exceed the 2s uncertainty in any of the sheep.
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Game AnimalsMuscle, liver, and thyroid samples were collected from 11 mule deer, nine pronghorn, and one elk, which had been accidentally killed on INEEL roads. There was detectable 137Cs radioactivity in the liver of one elk; the liver, muscle and thyroid of one mule deer; and the liver and muscle of three different pronghorn taken on or near the INEEL (Table 6-4). No other radionuclides were detected.
In 1998 and 1999, four pronghorn, five elk, and eight mule deer muscle samples were collected as background samples from hunters across the Western United States: three fromcentral Idaho; three from Wyoming; three from Montana; four from Utah; and one each from New Mexico, Colorado, Nevada, and Oregon. Each background sample had small, but detectable, 137Cs concentrations in their muscle ranging from (1.5 ± 0.2) x 10-3 to (200 ± 200) x 10 -3 pCi/g. Muscle results from animals sampled in 2002 are within this range, from (3.0 ± 2.9) x 10-3 to (13 ± 9.8) x 10-3 pCi/g. The 2002 values are also within the range of historical values. The highest value for 137Cs was recorded in the liver of a mule deer at (10.5 ± 3.4) x 10-3 pCi/g collected on the INEEL near CFA. These values can be attributed to the ingestion of radionuclides in plants from worldwide fallout associated with aboveground nuclear weapons testing. No 131I was detected in any of the thyroid glands.
Marmots are hunted and consumed by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes. During 2002, three marmots were collected from the RWMC and two from the Pocatello Zoo, which was used as the control area. Muscle, viscera, and hair-skin/bone samples were collected from each and analyzed for americium-241 (241Am), plutonium-238 (238Pu), plutonium-239/240 (239/240Pu), 90Sr, and gamma-emitting radionuclides.
All analytes were below detectable levels in all tissues from control animals (Table 6-5). This compares to data from control marmot samples collected in 2000 (three animals) in which no detections were made (DOE-ID 2002). There were also no detections of anthropogenic radionuclides in the three animals collected from the RWMC in 2000 (DOE-ID 2002).
One marmot collected from the RWMC contained low levels of 137Cs in all three tissue-types (Table 6-5). The 137Cs concentrations were about an order of magnitude higher than those detected in marmots collected around the RWMC in 1998 (DOE-ID 2000). This individual was captured in a trap location near the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) and Pit 9, which may explain the detection of 137Cs in this sample as compared to no detections in 1998 (DOE-ID 2000). However, the 137Cs concentrations observed in this animal are below those observed in other wildlife species collected previously at the SDA as well as in control animals collected for that study (Arthur and Janke 1986).
A second marmot had 90Sr detected in the muscle and hair-skin/bone tissues (Table 6-5). Before being taken as a sample, this animal had been captured in Pit 9 as well as outside the SDA on the south side indicating it traversed the SDA. Again, this concentration was well below 90Sr levels detected in animals in previous studies at the SDA (Arthur and Janke 1986). Potential dose from consuming these marmots is discussed in Chapter 7.
Eleven ducks were collected during 2002: two control samples from Heise and Mud Lake, three from the Test Reactor Area (TRA) Northeast Cold Pond, and four from Test Area North (TAN). Samples of the exterior, edible portions, and the remainder (33 samples total plus three duplicates) of all these waterfowl were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides with a subset analyzed for 90Sr, 241Am, 238Pu, and 239/240Pu. All 11 ducks had positive detections for one or more radionuclides in at least one tissue. Total radionuclide concentrations for those samples are summarized in Table 6-6. The potential dose from consuming these ducks is discussed in Chapter 7.
No mourning doves were collected in 2002.
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6.3 Soil Sampling
Soils are sampled to determine if long-term deposition of airborne materials released from the INEEL have resulted in a buildup of radionuclides in the environment. The ESER contractor collects offsite soil samples every two years. Samples were collected during the third quarter of 2002. Sample locations include boundary and distant localities (Figure 6-3). Five points were sampled at each location within a 10 x 10-m (32.8 x 32.8-ft) grid. At each point two discrete depth intervals, 0-5 cm (0-2 in.) and 5-10 cm (2-4 in.), were sampled. Samples from each depth at all five points were combined to make two composite samples: one for the 0-5 cm (0-2 in.) depth interval and one for the 5-10 cm (2-4 in.) depth interval, for each location.
Samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides, 90Sr, and certain actinides. Aboveground nuclear weapons testing resulted in many radionuclides being distributed throughout the world. Of these, 137Cs, 90Sr, 238Pu, 239/240Pu, and 241Am, all of which could potentially be released from INEEL operations, are of particular interest because of their abundance from nuclear fission events (e.g., 137Cs and 90Sr) or from their persistence in the environment because of long half-lives (e.g., 239/240Pu with a half-life of 24,390 years). All of these radionuclides, as well as 60Co, were detected in one or more soil samples collected during 2002 (Figure 6-4). However, if INEEL inputs had contributed significantly to these concentrations, it would be expected that boundary concentrations would be higher than distant locations. There were no differences (using independent sample t-tests and α= 0.05) between boundary and distant group concentrations for any of these radionuclides.
Figure 6-5 displays the geometric mean areal activity of specific radionuclides in offsite soils from 1975 to present. The geometric means were used because the data were lognormally skewed. The shorter-lived radionuclides (90Sr and 137Cs) show overall decreases through time.
Radionuclide levels in soils at 101 site surveillance locations near major INEEL facilities were measured by the M&O contractor in 2002 using insitu gamma spectrometry with additional grab samples at 0-5 cm (0-2 in.) at selected locations. The surface soils were analyzed insitu for gamma-emitting radionuclides and 90Sr. No 90Sr was detected during insitu measurements. Table 6-7 summarizes the insitu gamma results.
Table 6-8 presents results of selected samples collected by the M&O contractor and analyzed for alpha-emitting transuranics. Based on the 2002 and historical data, it was concluded that the anthropogenic radionuclides detected are a result of worldwide fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons and past INEEL facility operations.
ANL-W collects four soil samples annually, two from the predominant wind direction and two from the crosswind directions. Sufficient material to fill a 500 mL (16 oz.) wide mouth jar is collected from 0-5 cm (0-2 in.) depth within an approximately 1 m2 (~10 ft2) area. Samples are analyzed for low-level gamma-emitting radionuclides, and uranium, plutonium, and thorium isotopes. Table 6-9 presents the results of the 2002 sampling effort.
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Wastewater Land Application Permit Soil Sampling at CFA
The Wastewater Land Application Permit (WLAP) for the CFA Sewage Treatment Plant allows for nonradioactive wastewater to be pumped from the treatment lagoons to the ground surface (DOE-ID 1999, IDEQ 2000). Soils are sampled from the CFA land application area following each application season. Subsamples are taken from 0-30 cm (0-12 in.) and 30-61 cm (12-24 in.) at each location and composited, yielding two composite samples, one from each depth. These samples are analyzed for pH, salinity, sodium absorption ratio, and nitrogen, in accordance with the WLAP, to determine whether wastewater application is resulting in detrimental changes in soil quality. These results are presented in Table 6-10. Baseline data collected by Cascade Earth Sciences, Ltd. in 1993 are presented for comparison purposes in Table 6-10.
Soil pH has remained fairly constant during the application period (Table 6-10). However, the pH level at both the 0-30 cm (0-12 in.) and the 30-61 cm (12-24 in.) intervals during 2002 represent the application period minimum, indicating that soil pH may be decreasing. Percent organic matter has varied around baseline concentrations; however, it is expected to take several years for decomposed vegetation to be incorporated into the soil profile.
The soil salinity levels are within acceptable ranges based on electrical conductivity results (Bohn et al. 1985). Soil salinity levels between 0-2 mmhos/cm are generally accepted to have negligible effects on plant growth. During 2002, the electrical conductivity in both the 0-30 cm (0-12 in.) and the 30-61 cm (12-24 in.) intervals increased slightly over historical levels but remained well below the recommended 2 mmhos/cm maximum.
Soils with sodium adsorption ratios below 15 and electrical conductivity levels below 2 mmhos/cm are generally classified as not having sodium or salinity problems (Bohn et al. 1985). While 2002 sodium adsorption ratios were elevated at both depths relative to baseline levels and to historical average levels, they remain well below the ratio generally indicating a sodium or salinity problem in soil.
Nitrogen data suggest negligible nitrogen accumulation from wastewater application. The low soil available nitrogen (ammonium-nitrogen [NH4N] and nitrate-nitrogen [NO3N]) concentrations suggest that the native sagebrush and grass vegetation use all of the plant available nitrogen and that the total nitrogen application is low. Increased nutrients and water from wastewater application may be stimulating plant growth, which in turn rapidly utilizes plant available nitrogen. The ammonium and nitrate nitrogen concentrations are comparable to those of unfertilized, background agricultural soils.
In 2002, available phosphorus concentrations remained below baseline concentrations and less than that considered adequate for range and pasture crop growth (EPA 1981).
Based on these results, the application of wastewater at the CFA does not appear to adversely affect soil chemistry. However, analysis continue, as required by the WLAP, to evaluate potential long-term effects.
Naval Reactors Facility
Naval Reactors Facility personnel also sample soil and vegetation annually for programmatic radionuclides. For detailed information see the 2002 Environmental Monitoring Report for the Naval Reactors Facility (Bechtel Bettis 2002).
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6.4 Direct Radiation
Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) measure cumulative exposures to ambient ionizing radiation. The TLDs detect changes in ambient exposures attributed to handling, processing, transporting, or disposing of radioactive materials. The TLDs are sensitive to beta energies greater than 200 kilo-electron volts (keV) and to gamma energies greater than 10 keV. The TLD packets contain four lithium fluoride chips and are placed about 1 m (~3 ft) above the ground at specified locations. The four chips provide replicate measurements at each location. The TLD packets are replaced in May and November of each year. The sampling periods for 2002 were from November 2001 through April 2002 (spring) and from May through October 2002 (fall).
The measured cumulative environmental radiation exposure for offsite locations from November 2001 through October 2002 is shown in Table 6-11 for two adjacent sets of dosimeters maintained by the ESER and M&O contractors. For purposes of comparison, annual exposures from 1998-2002 are also included for each location.
The mean annual exposures from distant locations in 2002 were 120 ± 5.2 milliroentgens (mR) as measured by ESER contractor dosimeters and 119 ± 6.3 mR, as measured by the M&O contractor's dosimeters. For boundary locations, the mean annual exposures were 124 ± 7.0 mR as measured by ESER contractor dosimeters and 118 ± 7.4 mR as measured by M&O contractor dosimeters. Using both ESER and M&O data, the average dose equivalent of the distant group was 123 millirem (mrem), when a dose equivalent conversion factor of 1.03 was used to convert from milliroentgens to millirem in tissue (NRC 1997). The average dose equivalent for the boundary group was 125 mrem.
In addition to TLDs, the M&O contractor uses a global positioning radiometric scanner system to conduct gamma radiation surveys. The global positioning radiometric scanner is mounted on a four-wheel drive vehicle. The two plastic scintillation detectors of the radiometric scanner measure gross gamma in counts per second with no coincidence corrections or energy compensation. Elevated count rates suggest possible areas of contamination or elevated background areas. Both global positioning system and radiometric data are continuously recorded. The vehicle is driven at approximately 8 km/hr (5 mph) to collect survey data (see Subsection 6.5, Direct Radiation).
Onsite TLDs maintained by the M&O contractor representing the same exposure period as the offsite dosimeters are shown in Appendix D, Figures D-1 through D-10. The results are expressed in milliroentgens ± 2 standard deviations. Onsite dosimeters were placed on facility perimeters, concentrated in areas likely to show the highest gamma radiation readings. Other onsite dosimeters are located in the vicinity of radioactive materials storage areas. At some facilities, elevated exposures result from areas of soil contamination around the perimeter of these facilities.
The maximum exposure onsite recorded during 2002 was 784 ± 110 mR at location TRA 3. This location is the closest to a radioactive storage area, which is inside the facility fence line. Locations TRA 2, 3, and 4 are also adjacent to the former radioactive disposal ponds, which have been drained and covered with clean soil and large rocks.
The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) 20 TLD is located near a radioactive material storage area. Exposures at ICPP 20, INTEC Tree Farm 1, and INTEC Tree Farm 4 for 2002 were all comparable to historical exposures.
Table 6-12 summarizes the calculated effective dose equivalent an individual receives on the Snake River Plain from various background radiation sources.
The terrestrial portion of natural background radiation exposure is based on concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides found in soil samples collected in 1976, the last time a comprehensive background study was completed. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil are not expected to change significantly over this relatively short time period. Data indicated the average concentrations of uranium-238 (238U), thorium-232 (232Th), and potassium-40 (40K) were 1.5, 1.3, and 19 pCi/g, respectively. The calculated external dose equivalent received by a member of the public from 238U plus decay products, 232Th plus decay products, and 40K based on the above average area soil concentrations were 21, 28, and 27 mrem/yr, respectively, for a total of 76 mrem/yr. Because snow cover can reduce the effective dose equivalent Idaho residents receive from the soil, a correction factor must be made each year to the above estimate of 76 mrem/yr. For 2002, this resulted in a corrected dose of 64 mrem/yr because of snow cover, which ranged from 2.54 to 33.0 cm (1 to 13 in.) in depth with an average of 24.4 cm (9.6 in.) over 83 days with recorded snow cover.
The cosmic component varies primarily with altitude increasing from about 26 mrem at sea level to about 48 mrem at the elevation of the INEEL at approximately 1500 m (4900 ft) (NCRP 1987). Cosmic radiation may vary slightly because of solar cycle fluctuations and other factors.
The estimated sum of the terrestrial and cosmic components of dose to a person residing on the Snake River Plain in 2002 was 112 mrem. This is below the 123 mrem measured at distant locations by TLDs after conversion from milliroentgens to millirem in tissue. These values are very close and within normal variability (Table 6-11). Therefore, it is unlikely that INEEL operations contribute to background radiation levels at distant locations.
The component of background dose that varies the most is inhaled radionuclides. According to the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, the major contributor of external dose equivalent received by a member of the public from 238 plus decay products are short-lived decay products of radon (NCRP 1987). The amount of radon in buildings and groundwater depends, in part, upon the natural radionuclide content of the soil and rock of the area. This also varies between buildings of a given geographic area depending upon the materials each contains, the amount of ventilation and air movement, and other factors. The United States average of 200 mrem was used in Table 6-12 for this component of the total background dose because no specific estimate for southeastern Idaho has been made, and few specific measurements have been made of radon in homes in this area. Therefore, the effective dose equivalent from natural background radiation for residents in the INEEL vicinity may actually be higher or lower than the total estimated background dose of about 352 mrem shown in Table 6-12 and will vary from one location to another.
Naval Reactors Facility
The NRF also has TLDs placed around the perimeter fence of the facility and at distant locations to measure cumulative exposure. For detailed information see the 2002 Environmental Monitoring Report for the Naval Reactors Facility (Bechtel Bettis 2002).
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6.5 Waste Management Surveillance Sampling
Vegetation, soil, and direct radiation sampling is performed at waste management facilities (the RWMC and the WERF) in compliance with DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management.
At the RWMC, vegetation is collected from the five major areas shown on Figure 6-6. Russian thistle is collected in even-numbered years. Vegetation has been collected every three years from WERF (Figure 6-7) beginning in 1984 and was collected in 2002.
Samples of perennial plants were collected from WERF in 2002. Control samples were collected near Tractor Flats (Figure 6-8). Because of recontouring and construction activities at the RWMC, no Russian thistle was available for sampling in 2002. The vegetation samples were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides, 90Sr, and alpha-emitting transuranics. No gamma-emitting radionuclides were detected. Plutonium-239/240 and 90Sr were detected as shown in Table 6-13. The concentrations were all within the background range for the INEEL and surrounding areas and are attributable to past fallout.
ANL-W collects random vegetation samples from predominant wind directions and other areas of concern. Vegetation is sampled at the same locations as soil samples. Approximately one kg (2.2 lb) of mixed vegetation is collected and dried. The dried material is then powdered and analyzed for various radionuclides. Table 6-14 presents the 2002 vegetation results.
Biennial soil sampling was conducted during 2002. Soil samples were collected at the WERF locations shown in Figure 6-9, at 0-5 cm (0-2 in.). The soils were analyzed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and 90Sr. Selected samples were analyzed for alpha-emitting transuranics.
Cesium-137, 239/240Pu, and 90Sr were detected in all soil samples (Table 6-15). The concentrations are within the background range for the INEEL and surrounding areas and are attributable to past fallout. Americium-241 concentrations are above background for the INEEL but are consistent with historical concentrations at WERF and are attributable to past operational activities and fallout.
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The radiometric scanner system was used to conduct soil surface radiation (gross gamma) surveys at the RWMC to complement soil sampling. The global positioning radiometric scanner is mounted on a four-wheel drive vehicle. The system includes two plastic scintillators that measure gross gamma in counts per second with no coincidence corrections or energy compensation (elevated count rates indicate possible areas of contamination or elevated background). Both the global positioning system and radiometric data are continuously recorded.
Figures 6-10 and 6-11 show the radiation readings from the 2002 RWMC spring and fall surveys, respectively. The spring and fall surveys around the active low-level waste pit were comparable to or lower than historical measurements for that area. No new elevated readings were identified during either survey. Table 6-16 compares the maximum results of the spring and fall surveys. Although readings varied slightly from year to year, the results are comparable to previous years' measurements taken at the same locations.
Pad A cannot be surveyed via the global positioning radiometric scanner because of driving restrictions. Therefore, it was traversed with a hand-held detector. No elevated readings were identified on Pad A during either the spring or fall survey.
Figure 6-10. RWMC surface radiation spring 2002.
Figure 6-11. RWMC surface radiation fall 2002.
The M&O and ESER contractors sampled a variety of media in 2002, including agricultural products, wildlife, soil, and direct radiation to assess if operations at the INEEL are releasing contaminants to the environment in significant levels. Assessment of the 2002 data indicates that although some contaminants were detected, they could not be directly linked to operations at the INEEL. Concentrations of radionuclides detected were consistent with levels attributed to fallout from atmospheric weapons testing. Furthermore, the maximum levels for the contaminants found were all well below regulatory health-based limits for protection of human health and the environment.
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Arthur, W.J. and Janke, D.H., 1986, "Radionuclide Concentrations in Wildlife Occurring at the Solid Radioactive Waste Disposal Area," Northwest Science, 60 (3): 154-159.
Bechtel Bettis, 2002, 2002 Environmental Monitoring Report for the Naval Reactor Facility, NRF-EA-1129.
Bohn, H.L., McNeal, B.L., and O'Connor, G.A., 1985, Soil Chemistry, 2nd edition, New York: Wiley and Sons, Inc.
DOE, 2001, "Radioactive Waste Management," DOE Order 435.1, August 28.
DOE-ID, 1999, Letter to Idaho Division of Environmental Quality, "Wastewater Land Application Permit #LA-000141 Renewal Application and Report for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant," U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office, February 9.
DOE-ID, 2000, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1998, DOE/ID 12082(98).
DOE-ID, 2002, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Site Environmental Report for Calendar-Year 2000, DOE/ID-12082 (00).
EG&G, 1986, Development of Criteria for Release of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Sites Following Decontamination and Decommissioning, EGG 2400, August.
EPA , 1981, Process Design Manual for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater, EPA 625/1-81-013, Table 4-26.
EPA, 1995, Environmental Radiation Data Reports 79 82, July 1994-June 1995.
IDEQ, 2000, Letter to James Graham, "INEEL Central Facilities Area (CFA)," September 18.
NCPR, 1987, Exposure of the Population in the United States and Canada from Natural Background Radiation, NCRP Report No. 94, December 30.
NRC, 1997, Calculation of Annual Doses to Man From Routine Releases of Reactor Effluents for the Purpose of Evaluating Compliance with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix I, Regulatory Guide 1.109, Revision 1, October.
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