INEEL Annual Site Environmental Report -
It is the policy of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct research, environmental remediation, and operations at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in a manner that protects human health and the environment and is in full compliance with environmental laws and regulations.
The INEEL achieves this by integrating environmental requirements and pollution prevention into all work planning and execution, and by taking actions to minimize the environmental impacts of operations. Through employee involvement and management commitment to environmental excellence, the INEEL will:
Protect the unique natural, biological, and cultural resources of the INEEL.
This policy applies to all business units and all employees. Every employee and subcontractor is expected to follow this policy and to report environmental concerns to management. Managers shall promote environmental stewardship, take prompt action to address concerns and issues, and have zero tolerance for noncompliance.
The following people with the current Environmental Surveillance, Education and Research (ESER) contractor (S. M. Stoller Corporation) have provided primary authorship of portions of this report: Christopher Martin, Marilyn Case, Roger Blew, Randall Morris1, and Douglas Halford.
The primary authors would like to thank all those who provided data and review time for the completion of this document. In particular, we wish to thank the following people for their assistance: Mark Arenaz, Jack Depperschmidt, Kathleen Hain, Rosemary Haines, Bob Jones, Betsy Jonker, Richard Kauffman, Richard Kimmel, Stacey Madson, John Medema, Don Rasch, Tim Safford, Jeff Shadley, Jeff Snook, Bob Starck, Bob Stump, Jerry Wells, Stephanie Woolf, Patricia Natoni, Brian Edgerton, and Ron Ramsey with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operations Office; Leroy Knobel and Betty Tucker with the U.S. Geological Survey; W. Greg Bass with the DOE Chicago Operations Office-Argonne Area Office; Neil Hukari and Richard Eckman of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Wendy Dixon of the DOE Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Office, Idaho Branch Office; Eirik Fowler, Mark Hutchinson, Paula Kain, Marty Nolte, Bruce Olenick, and Kelly Willie of Bechtel Bettis Inc.; Brad Andersen, Ben Beus, Bryan Borsella, Teresa Brock, John Gill, Teresa Meachum, Maria Miles, Jeffrey Mousseau, Joan Neff, Paul Ritter, Chris Staley, Leah Street, Jim Tkachyk, and Roger Wilhelmsen with Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC; Amy Powell, Maureen Finnerty, Bevin Brush, and Tim Miller of Argonne National Laboratory-West; Wendy Purrington, Alana Jensen, and Brande Hendricks of the S. M. Stoller Corporation; Jeff Einerson (statistician); and Sally Francis (technical editor).
1 Randall Morris is with North Wind, Inc.
Every person in the world is exposed to ionizing radiation, which has sufficient energy to remove electrons from atoms, damage chromosomes, and cause cancer. There are three general sources of ionizing radiation: those of natural origin unaffected by human activities, those of natural origin but enhanced by human activities, and those produced by human activities (anthropogenic).
The first general source includes terrestrial radiation from natural radiation sources in the ground, cosmic radiation from outer space, and radiation from radionuclides naturally present in the body. Exposures to natural sources may vary depending on the geographical location and altitude at which the person resides. When such exposures are substantially higher than the average, they are considered to be elevated.
The second general source includes a variety of natural sources from which the radiation has been increased by human actions. For example, radon is a radioactive gas which comes from the natural decay of uranium and is found in nearly all soils. Concentrations of radon inside buildings may be elevated due to the type of soil and rock upon which they are built and may be enhanced by cracks and other holes in the foundation. Another example is the increased exposure to cosmic radiation that airplane passengers receive when traveling at high altitudes.
The third source includes a variety of exposures from human-made materials and devices such as medical x-rays, radiopharmaceuticals used to diagnose and treat disease, and consumer products containing minute quantities of radioactive materials. Exposures may also result from radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing, accidents at nuclear power plants, and other episodic events caused by human activities in the nuclear industry. Except for major nuclear accidents, such as the one that occurred at Chernobyl in 1986, exposures to workers and members of the public from activities in the nuclear industry generally are very small compared to exposures from natural sources (UNSCEAR 2000).
To verify that exposures resulting from operations at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities remain very small, each site where nuclear activities are conducted operates an environmental surveillance program to monitor the air, water, and other pathways through which radionuclides from operations might conceivably reach workers and members of the public. Environmental surveillance and monitoring results are reported annually to DOE Headquarters.
This report presents a compilation of data collected in 2002 for the environmental surveillance programs conducted on and around the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). During 2002, the Environmental Surveillance, Education and Research (ESER) Program was conducted by a team led by the S. M. Stoller Corporation. This team collected 2002 data and prepared this report. During 2002, the INEEL was operated by Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI). This report refers to BBWI as the Management and Operating (M&O) contractor. The M&O organization responsible for operating each facility conducted effluent and facility monitoring. The U.S. Geological Survey performed groundwater monitoring both onsite and offsite. The M&O contractor also conducted some onsite groundwater monitoring. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration collected meteorological data.
Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) and the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF) maintain separate monitoring programs. Both programs collect data similar to the M&O and ESER contractors, but the data are specific to these two facilities. ANL-W provides their information to the ESER contractor for incorporation into this annual report. NRF prepares an independent report, as such their data is briefly summarized here for completeness. The INEEL Oversight Program, under the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, also continued to maintain independent sample locations and analysis capabilities both on and around the INEEL in 2002.
This report, prepared in accordance with the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, is not intended to cover the numerous special environmental research programs conducted at the INEEL (DOE 1990). This Annual Site Environmental Report presents summary environmental data that:
Facilities operated under the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program, like the NRF, are exempt from the provisions for preparing an annual site environmental report. The Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program maintains a separate environmental protection program to ensure compliance with all applicable environmental laws and regulations. NRF issues a separate annual environmental report that provides NRF-specific monitoring data and information. For completeness, data from onsite monitoring programs at NRF are referenced in this report.
UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation), 2000, Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Vol. 1, UNSCEAR 2000 Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes.
DOE (U.S. Department of Energy), 1990, “General Environmental Protection Program,” DOE Order 5400.1, January.
Individual chapters of the report are designed to:
The Atomic Energy Commission created what is now the INEEL as the National Reactor Testing Station in 1949 as a site to build and test nuclear power reactors. The INEEL occupies approximately 2300 km 2 (890 mi 2 ) of the upper Snake River Plain in southeastern Idaho. Over the life of the INEEL, an assembly of 52 reactors, associated research centers, and waste handling areas have been constructed and tested.
The INEEL serves as a multi-program national laboratory that delivers science and engineering solutions to the world's environmental, energy, and security challenges in four core areas:
Science-based, engineered solutions to challenges of the DOE's mission areas, other federal agencies, and industrial clients.
There are nine primary facility areas and three smaller secondary facilities at the INEEL and in Idaho Falls. Seven of the nine primary facilities and the three secondary facilities are operated by the INEEL Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC. The University of Chicago and Bechtel Bettis, Inc. operate the remaining two primary facilities at the INEEL.
Approximately 8000 people work at the INEEL, making it the largest employer in eastern Idaho and one of the top five employers in the State. The INEEL has a tremendous economic impact on eastern Idaho. The INEEL has infused more than $750 million dollars to the Idaho economy.
Table ES-1 presents a brief summary of the INEEL's status of compliance with federal acts in 2002.
Many environmental programs help implement the environmental compliance policy for the INEEL. Most of the regulatory compliance activity is performed through environmental monitoring programs, the recently signed Accelerated Cleanup Agreement, the Environmental Restoration Program, and the Waste Management Program.
The major objectives of the environmental monitoring programs conducted at the INEEL are to identify the key contaminants released to the environment, to evaluate different pathways through which contaminants move in the environment, and to determine the potential effects of these contaminants on the public and the environment. This is accomplished though sampling and analysis of air; surface, subsurface, and drinking water; soil; wildlife; and vegetation, as well as measurement of direct radiation. During 2002, the prime Management and Operating contractor at the INEEL, Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC was responsible for onsite environmental monitoring. The Environmental Surveillance, Education and Research (ESER) Program contractor, which was a team led by the S. M. Stoller Corporation, was responsible for offsite environmental monitoring.
In May 2002, DOE, the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed a letter of intent formalizing an agreement to pursue accelerated risk reduction and cleanup at the INEEL. The intent of accelerating the cleanup of the INEEL yields two significant objectives: (1) risk reduction and continued protection of the Snake River Plain Aquifer and (2) consolidation of Environmental Management activities and reinvestment of savings into cleanup. Nine strategic initiatives were developed around these two objectives to accelerate cleanup.
The Environmental Restoration Program continued progress during 2002 toward final cleanup of contaminated sites at the INEEL. Since the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order was signed in December 1991, 22 Records of Decision have been signed and are being implemented; three Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Studies are under development; and more than 70 percent of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act actions have been completed.
The overall goals of the Waste Management Program are to ensure that workers and the public are protected and the environment is not further impacted. The Waste Management Program provides management services for facility waste streams. The following tasks were accomplished during 2002:
Seven Site Treatment Plan milestones were met.
The INEEL environmental surveillance programs, conducted by the Management and Operating (M&O) contractor and the Environmental Surveillance, Education and Research (ESER) contractor, emphasize measurement of airborne radionuclides because air transport is considered the major potential pathway from INEEL releases to receptors. The M&O contractor monitors airborne effluents at individual INEEL facilities and ambient air outside the facilities to comply with appropriate regulations and DOE orders. The ESER contractor samples ambient air at locations within, around, and distant from the INEEL.
An estimated total of 10,442 Ci of radioactivity, primarily in the form of short-lived noble gas isotopes, was released as airborne effluents in 2002. Samples of airborne particulates, atmospheric moisture, and precipitation were analyzed for gross alpha and gross beta activity, as well as for specific radionuclides, primarily tritium, strontium-90, iodine-131, cesium-137, plutonium-239/240, and americium-241. All concentrations were well below regulatory standards and within historical measurements. Table ES-2 summarizes the results of radiological monitoring of environmental media, including air, sampled at INEEL boundary, onsite, and offsite locations.
Nonradiological pollutants, including nitrogen dioxide and particulates, were monitored at select locations around the INEEL. All results were well below regulatory standards.
One potential pathway for exposure (primarily to workers) to the contaminants released from the INEEL is through surface, drinking, and groundwater. The M&O contractor monitors liquid effluents, drinking water, groundwater, and storm water runoff at the INEEL to comply with applicable laws and regulations, DOE orders, and other requirements (e.g., Wastewater Land Application Permit [WLAP] requirements). Argonne National Laboratory West and the Naval Reactors Facility conduct their own WLAP and drinking water monitoring. The U.S. Geological Survey INEEL Project Office performs groundwater monitoring, analyses, and studies of the Snake River Plain Aquifer under and adjacent to the INEEL. This is done through an extensive network of strategically placed observation wells on the INEEL and at locations throughout the Eastern Snake River Plain. The ESER contractor monitors drinking water and surface water at offsite locations.
During 2002, liquid effluent and groundwater monitoring was conducted in support of WLAP requirements for INEEL facilities that generate liquid waste streams covered under WLAP rules. The WLAPs generally require compliance with the Idaho groundwater quality primary and secondary constituent standards in specified groundwater monitoring wells. The permits specify annual discharge volume and application rates and effluent quality limits. As required, an annual report was prepared and submitted to the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality. Additional parameters are also monitored in the effluent in support of surveillance activities. Most wastewater and groundwater regulatory and surveillance results were below applicable limits in 2002.
Samples from public water systems and wells continue to show measurable quantities of carbon tetrachloride at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex production well. The annual average of 2.88 µg/L was below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5 µg/L. Trichloroethylene concentrations in samples from the Test Area North drinking water system during 2002 also remained below the MCL. Argonne National Laboratory-West and Naval Reactors Facility systems did not exceed any limits during 2002.
As required by the General Permit for storm water discharges from industrial activities, visual examinations were made and samples were collected from selected locations. Visual examinations showed no deficiencies. Total suspended solids, iron, magnesium, and chemical oxygen demand all exceeded benchmark levels in collected samples. All of these parameters have occurred above benchmark levels in the past. Examination of storm water flow paths showed no deficiencies in storm water protection.
Tritium and strontium-90 continue to be measured in the groundwater under the INEEL. Neither of these radionuclides has been detected off the INEEL since the mid-1980s. A maximum effective dose equivalent of 0.98 mrem/yr (9.8 µSv/yr), less than the 4 mrem/yr (40 µSv/yr) EPA standard for public drinking water systems, was calculated for workers at the Central Facilities Area on the INEEL in 2002.
Results from a number of special studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey of the properties of the aquifer were published during 2002. Several purgeable organic compounds continue to be found in monitoring wells, including drinking water wells at the INEEL. Concentrations of organic compounds were below the EPA MCLs for these compounds except for two wells at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, where concentrations of carbon tetrachloride slightly exceeded the MCL during certain months (MCL is used for comparison only as the MCL applies only to the distribution system and not the source well).
Drinking water samples were collected from 14 locations off the INEEL and around the Snake River Plain in 2002. Only one sample had measurable gross alpha, three had measurable tritium, and all samples had measurable gross beta activity. None of the samples exceeded the EPA MCL for these constituents.
Offsite surface water was collected from five locations along the Snake River. Nine of 12 samples had measurable gross beta activity, while only two samples had measurable tritium. None of these constituents were above regulatory limits. Onsite sampling of surface water runoff for waste management purposes showed no values above regulatory limits.
Table ES-2 summarizes the results of radiological monitoring of environmental media, including water, collected at INEEL boundary, onsite, and offsite locations.
To help assess the impact of contaminants released to the environment by operations at the INEEL, agricultural products (milk, lettuce, wheat, potatoes, and sheep); wildlife; and soil were sampled and analyzed for radionuclides. In addition, direct radiation was measured on and off the INEEL in 2002.
Some human-made radionuclides were detected in agricultural product, wildlife, and soil samples. For the most part, the results could not be directly linked to operations at the INEEL. With the exception of americium-241 concentrations in soils collected at the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF), concentrations of radionuclides detected in samples were consistent with fallout levels from atmospheric weapons testing. The maximum levels for these radionuclides were all well below regulatory health-based limits for protection of human health and the environment.
Americium-241 was detected above background levels in soil samples collected around WERF. However, the concentrations were consistent with those measured historically and are attributable to past WERF operations and fallout.
Direct radiation measurements made at offsite, boundary and onsite locations (except RWMC) were consistent with background levels. Direct radiation measurements at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex were greater than background levels but consistent with those made historically.
Table ES-2 summarizes the results of radiological monitoring of environmental media, including biota and soil, collected at INEEL boundary and offsite locations.
Potential radiological doses to the public from INEEL operations were evaluated to determine compliance with pertinent regulations and limits. Two different computer programs were used to estimate doses: CAP-88 computer code and the mesoscale diffusion (MDIFF) air dispersion model. CAP-88 is required by the EPA to demonstrate compliance with the Clean Air Act. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Air Resources Laboratory-Field Research Division developed MDIFF to evaluate dispersion of pollutants in arid environments such as those found at the INEEL. The maximum calculated dose to an individual by either of the methods was well below the applicable radiation protection standard of 10 mrem/yr. The dose to the maximally exposed individual, as determined by the CAP-88, program was 0.055 mrem (0.55 µSv). The dose calculated by the MDIFF program was 0.04 mrem (0.4 µSv). The maximum potential population dose to the approximately 238,250 people residing within an 80-km (50-mi) radius of any INEEL facility was 0.93 person-rem, well below that expected from exposure to background radiation.
Potential doses to members of the public are summarized in Table ES-3.
The maximum potential individual doses from consuming ducks, big game animals, and marmots at the INEEL, based on the highest concentrations of radionuclides measured in samples of these animals, were estimated to be 0.004 mrem (0.04 µSv), 1.34 mrem (13.4 µSv), and 0.003 mrem (0.03 µSv), respectively. These estimates are conservatively high.
Doses were also evaluated using a graded approach for nonhuman biota at the INEEL. Based on this approach, there is no evidence that INEEL-related radioactivity in soil or water is harming populations of plants or animals.
The INEEL was designated as a National Environmental Research Park (NERP) in 1975. The NERP program was established in the 1970s in response to recommendations from citizens, scientists, and members of Congress to set aside land for ecosystem preservation and study. In many cases, these protected lands became the last remaining refuges of what were once extensive natural ecosystems. The NERPs provide rich environments to train researchers and introducing the public to ecological sciences. They have been used to educate grade school and high school students and the general public about ecosystem interactions at DOE sites; to train graduate and undergraduate students in research related to site-specific, regional, national, and global issues; and promote collaboration and coordination among local, regional, and national public organizations, schools, universities, and federal and state agencies
Ecological research at the INEEL began in 1950 with the establishment of the long-term vegetation transect. This is perhaps DOE's oldest ecological data set and one of the oldest vegetation data sets in the West. Ecological research on the NERPs is leading to planning for better land use, identifying of sensitive areas on DOE sites so that restoration and other activities are compatible with ecosystem protection and management, and increasing contributions to ecological science in general.
The following ecological research projects took place at the Idaho NERP during 2002:
Quality assurance and quality control programs are maintained by contractors conducting environmental monitoring and by laboratories performing environmental analyses to ensure precise, accurate, representative, and reliable results and maximize data completeness. Data reported in this document were obtained from several commercial, university, government, and government contractor laboratories. To assure quality results, these laboratories participate in a number of laboratory quality check programs.
Laboratories used by the ESER Program met their quality assurance goals in 2002. A new issue concerning elevated tritium levels detected in atmospheric moisture samples analyzed at the Idaho State University Environmental Assessment Laboratory occurred during the latter half of the year. As of the end of 2002, the laboratory was investigating the possible cause for these elevated readings.
Quality issues that arose with laboratories used by the M&O contractor were addressed with the laboratory and resolved.
Scientific notation is used to express numbers that are very small or very large. A very small number is expressed with a negative exponent, for example, 1.3 x 10 -6 . To convert this number to the decimal form, the decimal point must be moved left by the number of places equal to the exponent (6, in this case). The number, thus, becomes 0.0000013.
For large numbers, those with a positive exponent, the decimal point is moved to the right by the number of places equal to the exponent. The number 1,000,000 can be written as 1.0 x 10 6 .
Units for very small and very large numbers are often expressed with a prefix. One common example is the prefix kilo (abbreviated k), which means 1000 of a given unit. One kilometer is, therefore, equal to 1000 meters. Other prefixes used in this report are listed Table P-1.
Table P-1. Unit prefixes used in this report.
The basic unit of radioactivity used in this report is the curie (abbreviated Ci). The curie is historically based on the number of disintegrations that occur in 1 gram of the radionuclide radium-226, which is 37 billion nuclear disintegrations per second. For any other radionuclide, 1 Ci is the amount of the radionuclide that decays at this same rate.
Radiation exposure is expressed in terms of the roentgen (R), the amount of ionization produced by gamma radiation in air. Dose is given in units of roentgen equivalent man or rem, which takes into account the effect of radiation on tissues. For the types of environmental radiation generally encountered, the unit of roentgen is approximately numerically equal to the unit of rem. A person-rem is the sum of the doses received by all individuals in a population.
The concentration of radioactivity in air samples is expressed in units of microcuries per milliliter (µCi/mL) of air. For liquid samples, such as water and milk, the units are in picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Radioactivity in agricultural products is expressed in nanocuries per gram (nCi/g) dry weight. Annual human radiation exposure, measured by environmental dosimeters, is expressed in units of milliroentgens (mR). This is sometimes expressed in terms of dose as millirem (mrem), after being multiplied by an appropriate dose equivalent conversion factor.
The Système International is also used to express units of radioactivity and radiation dose. The basic unit of radioactivity is the becquerel (Bq), which is equivalent to 1 nuclear disintegration per second. The number of curies must be multiplied by 3.7 x 10 10 to obtain the equivalent number of becquerels. Radiation dose may also be expressed using the Système International unit sievert (Sv), where 1 Sv equals 100 rem.
There is always an uncertainty associated with the measurement of environmental contaminants. For radioactivity, a major source of uncertainty is the inherent statistical nature of radioactive decay events, particularly at the low activity levels encountered in environmental samples. The uncertainty of a measurement is denoted by following the results with an uncertainty ("±") term. This report follows convention in reporting the uncertainty as a 95 percent confidence limit (or interval). That means there is 95 percent confidence that the real concentration in the sample lies somewhere between the measured concentration minus the uncertainty term and the measured concentration plus the uncertainty term.
Negative values occur in radiation measurements when the measured result is less than a preestablished average background level for the particular counting system and procedure used. These values are reported as negative, rather than as “not detected” or “zero,” to better enable statistical analyses and observe trends or bias in the data.
Radionuclides are frequently expressed with the one- or two-letter chemical symbol for the element. Radionuclides may have many different isotopes, which are shown by a superscript to the left of the symbol. This number is the atomic weight of the isotope (the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom). Radionuclide symbols used in this report are shown in Table P-2.
a. The letter 'm' after a number denotes a metastable (transitional isotope normally with very short half-lives) isotope.
|AAO||Argonne Area Office (DOE-CH)|
|AEC||Atomic Energy Commission|
|ANL-W||Argonne National Laboratory-West|
|ANOVA||Analysis of Variance|
|ARA||Auxiliary Reactor Area|
|ASME||American Society of Mechanical Engineers|
|BBI||Bechtel Bettis, Inc|
|BBWI||Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC|
|BCG||Biota Concentration Guides|
|BNFL||British Nuclear Fuels Limited, Inc.|
|BORAX||Boiling Water Reactor Experiment|
|CERCLA||Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act|
|CERT||Controlled Environmental Radioiodine Test|
|CFA||Central Facilities Area|
|CFR||Code of Federal Regulations|
|CMS||Community Monitoring Station|
|CTF||Contained Test Facility|
|CWA||Clean Water Act|
|DCG||Derived Concentration Guide|
|DEQ||(Idaho) Department of Environmental Quality|
|DOE||U.S. Department of Energy|
|DOE-CH||U.S. Department of Energy Chicago Operations Office|
|DOE-HQ||U.S. Department of Energy Headquarters|
|DOE-ID||U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office|
|EAL||Environmental Assessment Laboratory|
|EBR-I||Experimental Breeder Reactor No.1|
|ECF||Expended Core Facility|
|EDF||Experimental Dairy Farm|
|EFS||Experimental Field Station|
|EIS||Environmental Impact Station|
|EML||Environmental Measurements Laboratory|
|EMS||Environmental Management System|
|EPA||Environmental Protection Agency|
|EPCRA||Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act|
|ESER||Environmental Surveillance, Education and Research|
|ESRF||Environmental Science and Research Foundation|
|ETR||Engineering Test Facility|
|FAST||Fluorinel Dissolution Process and Fuel Storage Facility|
|FDF||Fluroinel Dissolution Facility|
|FFA/CO||Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order|
|GEM||Glovebox Evacuation Method|
|ICPP||Idaho Chemical Processing Plant|
|IDAPA||Idaho Administrative Procedures Act|
|IFSF||Irradiated Fuel Storage Facility|
|IMPROVE||Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments|
|INEEL||Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory|
|INTEC||Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (formerly the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant)|
|IRC||INEEL Research Center|
|ISFSI||Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation|
|ISO||International Standards Organization|
|ISU||Idaho State University|
|LET&D||Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal (Facility)|
|M&O||Management and Operating|
|MCL||Maximum Contaminant Level|
|MDC||Minimum Detectable Concentration|
|MDIFF||Mesoscale Diffusion Model|
|MEI||Maximally Exposed Individual|
|MTHM||Metric Tons Heavy Metal|
|MTR||Materials Test Reactor|
|NCRP||National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements|
|NEPA||National Environmental Policy Act|
|NERP||National Environmental Research Park|
|NESHAP||National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants|
|NIST||National Institute of Standards and Technology|
|NOAA||National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration|
|NOAA ARL-FRD||National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Air Resources Laboratory - Field Research Division|
|NOV||Notice of Violation|
|NPDES||National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System|
|NRC||U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission|
|NRF||Naval Reactors Facility|
|NRTS||National Reactor Testing Station|
|NWQL||National Water Quality Laboratory (USGS)|
|PBF||Power Burst Facility|
|PCBE||Protective Cap/Biobarrier Experiment|
|PCS||Primary Constituent Standard|
|PSD||Prevention of Significant Deterioration|
|PTC||Permit to Construct|
|RCRA||Resource Conservation and Recovery Act|
Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory
|RI/FS||Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study|
|RML||Radiological Measurements Laboratory (INEEL)|
|ROD||Record of Decision|
|RWMC||Radioactive Waste Management Complex|
|SAR||Sodium Absorption Ratio|
|SCS||Secondary Constituent Standard|
|SDA||Subsurface Disposal Area|
|SMC||Specific Manufacturing Capability|
|SRPA||Snake River Plain Aquifer|
|STF||Security Training Facility|
|TAN||Test Area North|
|TDS||Total Dissolved Solids|
|TKN||Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen|
|TRA||Test Reactor Area|
|TSA||Transuranic Storage Area|
|TSCA||Toxic Substances Control Act|
|TSF||Technical Support Facility|
|USGS||U.S. Geological Survey|
|WAG||Waste Area Group|
Waste Experimental Reduction Facility
|WIPP||Waste Isolation Pilot Plant|
|WLAP||Wastewater Land Application Permit|
|WMP||Waste Management Program|
Waste Reduction Operations Complex
|WRRTF||Water Reactor Research Test Facility|
|Btu||British thermal unit||µCi||microcurie (10 -6 curies)|
|cfm||cubic feet per minute||µm||micrometer|
|cm||centimeter||mmhos/cm||millimhos per centimeter|
|cpm||counts per minute||mR||milliroentgen|
|dpm||disintegrations per minute||ng||nanogram|
|g||gram||pCi||picocurie (10 -12 curies)|
|gal||gallon||ppb||parts per billion|
|hr||hour||rem||roentgen equivalent man|
|L||liter||x 2||unit squared|
|lb||pound||x 3||unit cubed|